Security Council Resolution: Cutting Funds of ISIS
Terrorist organisations may raise funds and create their budget either by legitimate sources charitable entities or legitimate businesses and self-financing or by illegitimate sources, human trafficking, illicit oil trade and drug trafficking.
In case of ISIL, oil smuggling and illicit oil trade was one of the main source for their rule of terrorism. They were gaining millions of dollars per day by selling oil at roughly half the official price on the black market, while also earning huge sums from human trafficking and extortion. This situation has already been mentioned in several UN Resolutions.
Intra Legem, while stressing the importance of how ISIL generate huge amounts of profits, was promoting and supporting any initiative, especially by UN Security Council, to tackle illegal sources, illicit oil trade conduct by ISIL, in the region.
Our first analysis, Tackling with the Rising Illicit Oil Trade in the Middle East, was analytically compare the differences and deficiencies by depicting crisis situation and responsive measures both in Libya and Syria-Iraq.
Second one, Rule of Law or Rule of Terror: Living under ISIS, was about reign of terror created by ISIL in the region.
Response to Oil Smuggling
On 12 February, UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 2199, which taking counter measures against illicit oil trade, both supply chain and support networks.
The core elements of Resolution 2199 address; oil smuggling, looting of antiquities, ransom payments, donations.
With regard the illicit oil trade, UN Security Council;
“Condemns any engagement in direct or indirect trade, in particular of oil and oil products, and modular refineries and related material, with ISIL, ANF and any other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities designated as associated with Al-Qaida by the Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011),
Calls on states to cooperate in stopping illicit oil trafficking benefiting ISIL, ANF, and AQ-related groups (for example, by sharing information on smuggling routes, providing capacity building assistance to counter smuggling, etc.)”
Not only oil smuggling but also trade in cultural heritage and ransoms is seen as a major income by UN Security Council,
“ISIL, ANF and AQ-related groups are generating income from the direct or indirect trade in looting and smuggling of cultural heritage items,
Ransom payments to terrorist groups are one of the sources of income which supports their recruitment efforts, strengthens their operational capability to organize and carry out terrorist attacks, and incentivizes future incidents of kidnapping for ransom.”
Council noticed the fact that terrorist organizations are using technology and internet for several purposes and expressed its concerns
“at the increased use, in a globalized society, by terrorists and their supporters, of new information and communications technologies, in particular the Internet, to facilitate terrorist acts, as well as their use to incite, recruit, fund or plan terrorist acts.”
The Resolution 2199 was drafted by Russia. Kristen Boon from Opinio Juris, stated that this initiative as positive engagement of Russia in the situation of Syria. Although it seems a positive engagement, it is an easy option for Russia. Why? It is an easy and tactical option for Russia because, Brent crude oil price falls to six-year low early this year. Tackling with illicit oil trade under this circumstance is less attractive.